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Rare and Valuable Plant Species
Premna octonervia Merr. & Metc.
Small tree, branchlets puberulent to none. Leaves ovate-oblong to ovate, margin entire; lateral veins 6-8 pairs, sparsely puberulent. Inflorescences sparsely puberulent; calyx somewhat 4- or 5-lobed; corolla greenish-white, tube glabrous outside, villous in throat inside. Fruit globose, dark purple.
Tristellateia australasiae A. Richard
Malpighiaceae evergreen woody vines; leaves long-oblong, pinnate; inflorescence raceme, terminal, bright yellow; stamens 5 long and 5 short, style red; long pedicel joint at lower part. Fruit a brown, starry winged samara.
Zanthoxylum pistaciiflorum Hayata.
A Rutaceae small tree; poisonous, bark reddish gray, slightly rounded lenticels convex and crack; leaves 3-foliolate, terminal largest, leaflets rhombus or obovate-oblong, the margins crenate-serrate, chartaceous; inflorescence axillary, calyx, petals, stamen and pistil all in 5; cordate anther, tiny balls on tip. Seeds sheen, black.
Excoecaria agallocha L.
Euphorbiaceous evergreen tree, secreting white milk stimulant. Single leaves alternate, margin entire or crenate, elliptic or ovate; monoecious, inflorescence axillary or terminal spikes; female at base; calyx 3, 3-lobed ovary, no petal, radiate; 1-3 stamen flowers every petal, calyx and stamen all in 3; seeds subglobose, 3-lobed.
Cryptocarya elliptifolia Merr.
Lauraceae. Branchlets glabrous. Solitary leaves alternate, ovate-elliptic, glabrous, coriaceous, 3 main veins at base, lateral veins 5-6 pairs, reticulate veinlets prominent. Inflorescences paniculate, axillary, perianth elliptic-obovate, hirsute. Fruit globose, wrapped by perianth.
Neolitsea daibuensis Kamikoti.
Lauraceae Neolitsea. Branchlets glabrous; buds glabrous, imbricate-scaled, sparsely hirsute. Leaves ovate or ovate-lanceolate, leaflets grayish white then turn green, polished. Tepals: castaneous when pubescent, no margin hair.
Syzygium tripinnatum (Blanco) Merr
Myrtaceae. Branches glabrous, branchlets compressed. Leaves chartaceous, ovate-lanceolate or oblong, 8.5-11.5 cm long, caudate at apex, lateral veins 8-11 pairs; petioles 5-7 mm long. Fruit elliptic.
Vaccinium wrightii Gray var.
Ericaceae. Young branchlets glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Leaves thick chartaceous, ovate to oblong or rhombic-oblong, 3-5 cm long, apex acuminate, margin serrate, glabrous and green on both surfaces, lateral veins 3 or 4 pairs; petiole ca. 2 mm long, slightly pubescent. Racemes pubescent; pedicel 5-8 mm long, corolla campanulate-cylindric, glabrous. Fruit a globose berry.
Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet var. macrophyllus
Leaves linear, 7-10 mm wide, acute at the apex, sparely rounded, narrowing gradually at the base. Staminate cones 3-5 in clusters.
Osteomeles anthyllidifolia Lindl. var. subrotunda (C. Koch) Masamune
A Rosaceae Osteomeles small shrub; stems pubescent when young. Leaflets oblique, ovate or elliptic, sessile, hirsute on both surfaces. White flowers terminal corymbs or cymes; calyx, petal, carpel, style all in 5, calyx contorted persistent, stamen 15-20, carpel sparsely joined, pistils and styles separated. Fruit a small pome, 5 nuts inside.
Neolitsea parvigemma (Hayata) Kanehira & Sasaki.
Laraceae. Branchlets and bud scales glabrous. Leaves ovate-oblong to obovate-oblong, glaucous and glabrous beneath.
Millettia pulchra Kurz. var. microphylla
A small tree or big shrub, branches thinly grayish villose. Leaves odd-pinnate, terminal leaflets oblong-lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm long, 5-8 cm wide. Flowers axillary racemes or terminal panicles, calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, above 2 joined, bottom one longest, petal butterfly-like, reddish purple. Pods oblong, 4-8 cm long, dehiscent.
Corylopsis pauciflora Sieb. & Zucc.
A Hamamelidaceae Corylopsis deciduous shrub or small tree. Leaves mostly ovate, serrate margin, 7 cm long, 3.5 cm wide, petioles pubescent, base obtuse to rounded-cordate, lateral veins 6-8 pairs. Imperfect flowers, yellow hanging spikes, axillary; calyx, petal, stamen in 5, ovary beneath, 2 cells. Fruit broad obovate.
Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet. var. maki Siev. & Zucc.
Leaves similar to Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet var. macrophyllus, but 3-7 mm wide, sharply or narrowing acute at the apex.
Hypericum geminiflorum Hemsl. var. simplicistylum (Hayata) Robson
A Clusiaceae shrub, up to 40 cm high. Branches glabrous, black or red glands, rounded; branchlets erect or oblique, slightly compressed. Leaves nearly elliptic, veins obscure, gray glands, base sagittate, sessile. Fruit 5-8 mm long. Seeds narrowly ovoid-conic; petals and stamen deciduous when capsules mature.
Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall.) R. N. Parker.
A Meliaceae small tree or shrub. Leaves pinnately compound; leaflets oblique. Pistil flower spike; staminate panicle, calyx 5-lobed; petals 3, fused in the lower half to the staminal tube, stamens 3-8, tube-like, ovary 3- or 4-celled, 3-angled stigma.
Photinia lasiopetala Hayata.
A Rosaceae evergreen woody. Stem no thorn. Leaves oblanceolate-oblong, the base cuneate, solitary alternate, petioles subulate. Inflorescence terminal corymb-paniculate, calyx fused to ovary in lower half, persistent; petals broadly obovate, the base pubescent; stamen 20 or above; ovary lower, 2- to 5-celled, 2 ovules each. Pome small.
Photnia ludica (Decne.) Schneider
A Rosaceae evergreen woody. Stem no thorn. Leaves narrowly obovate, gradually cuneate-attenuate at base, solitary alternate, petioles subulate. Inflorescence terminal corymb-paniculate, petals orbicular, calyx and petals in 5, calyx fused to ovary in lower half, persistent; stamen 20 or above; ovary lower, 2- to 5-celled, 2 ovules each. Pome small.
Cycas taitungensis Shen, Hill, Tsou & Chen.
A Cycadaceae evergreen tree-like palm, up to 5 meter high. Leaves simply pinnate terminal, 2 m long, leaflets linear 3-7 cm long; dioecious, male cone ovoid-cylindrical, nearly 50 cm long; female sporophylls heavily tomentose, 25 cm long, spade-like, corn scales leaf-like, ovary 2-4 on long stalk. Seeds compressed obovate, 4.5 cm long.
Acer buergerianum Miq. var. formosanum (Hayata) Sasaki
A Taiwan endemic variation. Leaves obovate to broad elliptic, rounded or slightly cordate at base, 3-lobed near apex. Flowering in March and April, yellowish green. Samara ripe in July and August, yellowish brown.
Excoecaria formosana (Hayata) Hayata
An Euphorbiaceae evergreen tree, secreting stimulant white milk. Solitary alternate, entire or crenate-serrate, near coriaceous, opposite, oblong-lanceolate. Monoecious, spikes axillary or terminal, pistil flowers at the base, calyx 3, ovary 3; no petal, radial; stamen flowers 1-3 every bud, calyx and stamen in 3. Capsules globose, 3-lobed.
Vaccinium wrightii Gray
An Ericaceae Taiwan endemic variation; young branches glabrous or hirsute. Leaves thick, chartaceous, ovate, rhomboid, oblong or so, 1.5-2 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide, apex acute, serrate margin, glabrate and green on both sides, lateral veins 3-4 pairs, petiole 2 cm long, pubescent. Inflorescence pubescent, pedicel 5-8 cm long, corolla glabrate. Fruits globose.
Fagus hayatae Palib.
A Fagaceae deciduous tree, bark gray-white glabrous. Young leaves back veins and perianth in golden hair; leaves elliptic to ovate, serrate margin, parallel veins 7-10 pairs. Monoecious, staminate inflorescence 4 to 6 in early April, bunch fused into a tube; pistillate flowers only 1-2. Cupules globose-ovoid, soft-thorn, nuts 2, 3-winged.
Pentapanax castanopsiscola Hayata.
An Araliaceae Pentapanax scandent shrubs. Leaves simple-pinnate, leaflets 5-7, ovate, crenate in upper half, lateral veins 10-15 pairs. Flowers bisexual or polygamous, umbellate; calyx, petals, stamens all in 5. Fruit compressed globose.
Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder
A Roasceae Pyracantha evergreen shrub; branches thrones. Leaves 3-5 verticillate on branchlets, oblong to obovate, emarginated but mucronate at the tip, the base cuneate, entire. Flowers in terminal panicle or corymbs. Fruits globose, red when ripe.
Cynanchum formosanum (Maxim.) Hemsl.
An Asclepiadaceae twining shrub. Leaves coriaceous or chartaceous, oblong or elliptic, 3-8 cm long, apex acute, stipule-like leaves in the axils. Inforescences few-flowered cymes; peduncles 1-1.6 cm long, ciliate; corolla light green mixed with brown.
Taiwania cryptomerioides Hay.
A Taiwania Hayata large evergreen tree, trunk erect, dome-shaped crown; Leaves on old branches scale, on young branches linear, sharply pointed. Male flowers cluster terminating the branchlets, female solitary. Cones ovate or oblong; seed scales compressed kidney, coriaceous, central ridged; seeds flattened, narrow wings on both sides.
Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana ( Florin) W. C. Cheng & L. K. Fu
Taiwan Incense Cedar
A Cupressaceae Calocedrus evergreen tree, trunk straight, dome-shaped crown; bark reddish brown; rasin light red to yellowish-brown. Leaves scale, linear. Monoecious. Corns woody, oblong; seeds 2 winged.
Syzygium formosanum ( Hay.)Mori.
Myraceae, branchlets slender, glabrous. Leaves coriaceous, elliptic, oblong or obovate, 6 cm long, acuminate at apex, acute or attenuate at base; lateral veins distinct, about 22 pairs; petioles 8-12 mm long. Fruit globose.
Alyxiz insularis Kanehira & Sasaki.
An Apocynaceae alyxia twining shrub. Leaves verticillate and pinnate, thick coriaceous, obovate-lanceolate, 2-2.5 cm long, attenuate apex, lateral veins inconspicuous. Flowers in cymes; corolla tube, tepals fold towards left; stamen on corolla tube. Drupe or berry, ellipsoid.
Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Hayata) Hayata
A Pinaceae Keteleeria large evergreen tree; bark dark gray; dome-shaped crown; oily resin from wounded trunks. Leaves linear, midrib keeled, margins revolute, alternate in 2 lines. Monoecious; male flowers cluster in terminal; flowering in March. Cones solitary, erect, cylindric-oblong.
Paulownia x taiwaniana T. W. Hu & H. J. Chang
A Scrophulariaceae Paulownia tree; stems and branches glabrescent. Leaves pinnate, widely ovate, margins rarely entire, palm veins, pubescent. Inflorescence pyramidal, ultimate cyme; calyx, petals in 5; corolla light purple tubes with deep violet spots on yellow throat; 2 strong stamen, anthers disconnected. Capsule dehiscent at back.
Hypericum formosanum Maxim.
A Hypericum shrub, glabrous, with black or red glands; old branches 2-lined. Leaves ovate to elliptic, veins inconspicuous, pinnate or reticulate, with pale glandular dots, base cuneate to rounded, separated from stem. Bisexual, yellow, solitary or cyme. Petals and stamen off when capsule mature; seeds with terminal expansion.
Pasania formosana (Skan) Schott.
A Fagaceae pasania medium-sized tree. Leaves entire, revolute, rounded or obtuse at apex, oblong-obovate or narrow-obovate. Flowers in Feb. to March; stamens 8-12. Nuts conic, wrapped at base.
Taxus celebica Li
Taxaceae taxus, with reddish scaly bark, vertical stripes, peeled off in irregular flakes, trunk left with cloudy marks and fingerprint rings. Leaves linear-lanceolate, with 2 tawny yellow bands beneath. Seeds mature in Nov., ovoid, enclosed in a red fleshy scarlet.
Ormosia formosana Kanehira.
A Leguminosae ormosia tree, young branchlets hirsute. Leaves odd-pinnate, leaflets 3-7, the Parietal lamina obovate to obovate-lanceolate. Flowers terminal raceme; calyx campanulate, 5-lobed, first 2 shorter, petals butterfly-like, a pair of asymmetrical ears at base; stamen 10. Capsules large, woody; seed coat scarlet.
Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr.
A small tree or shrub; branchlets pubescent. Leaves obovate-lanceolate or elliptic lanceolate, 11 cm long, 4 cm wide, acute at both ends. Inflorescence in terminal, panicles. Capsule 2-valved.
Liodendron formosanum (Kanehira & Sasaki)
An Euphorbiaceae Homonoia riparia tree. Leaves alternate, thin-coriaceous, elliptic to oblong-ovate, the apex acuminate, the margins entire to crenulate-serrulate. Flowers in March to April, dioecious, axillary; male inflorescence raceme; female solitary. Drupes appressed pubescent.